Water Charges, Wastewater Charges and Water Protection Charges, Finland
The municipalities collect both water and wastewater charges from users. The charges cover the operating and investment costs of water supply management. Water is not a scarce commodity in Finland, nor is it used intensively and therefore the charges do not cover the costs arising from water use (Hiltunen, 2004, pp16).
Municipal water and wastewater charges, EUR/ m3
Water charge, Water works,
User charge, Wastewater works
Source: Hiltunen, 2004:16
Water protection charges were paide by industry and fish farms. These charges are being phased out with new permits coming into operation in 2006. The revenue from the charges is used to cover teh cost of research on water protection (Hiltunen, 2004).
Hiltunen, Marjukka, 2004, Economic Environmental Policy Instruments in Finland, The Finnish Environmental Institute, Helsinki. www.ymparisto.fi/download.asp?contentid=20705&lan=en
Nordic Council of Ministers, 2006, The Use of Economic Instruments in the Nordic and Baltic Environmental Policy 2001-2005, TemaNord 2006:525, National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark.